Flavour descriptions are inherently subjective—not surprising, considering how subjective
taste can be. Unlike other sensory descriptions that have relatively objective descriptions
(loud, soft, furry, scaly), taste (and smell) is often hard to describe.
Flavour terms can be divided into roast related descriptors and descriptors related
to the bean variety (though this division is not a standard one). The roast related
flavours refer to those characteristics imparted to the bean as a result of the roasting
process. Varietal and processing terms refer to those aspects that are inherent in
bean, or imparted as a result of the green bean's pre-roast processing. Roasting
can substantially affect the intrinsic flavour and aroma of the bean; roasters will
act in order to balance this and to enhance the beans' inherent profile. One further
factor is preparation method; this can drastically change the coffee's character.
Related both to the roast and to variety. This term is akin to the description of
acidity in wine, not to acid content. Indeed, retailers may avoid using this term
in order to avoid confusion, and rely on terms such as "bright" or "lively." Acidity
is more of a sensation than a taste, and is experienced on the tip of the tongue
and/or the roof of the mouth. During roasting, acidity varies in an approximately
inverse relation to body or bittersweet aspects; as the degree of roast increases,
perceived acidity decreases. Coffees without acidity tend to taste flat, lacking
a pleasant palate-cleansing aspect. Acidity can often have wine-like aspects, especially
in many Kenyan coffees, or can come across as citrusy. When acidity is extreme, it
can feel astringent, as if the moisture has been sucked from your mouth.
Related to both roast and variety. Most of our taste perception comes from our sense
of smell, so the volatile aromatics emitted from brewed coffee play an important
role in its taste. Aroma develops during roasting, but as the roast starts becoming
dark, the carbonized sugars become dominant.
Baked or Bready
A roast related term. Baked coffee is flat, with little aroma; typically the result
of an insufficiently high roasting temperature over too long a period of time. In
other words, if the heat applied to the unroasted coffee is too low, the physical
and chemical changes do not occur in a desirable fashion.
Roast and variety related. The pleasing combination of multiple characteristics,
Roast and variety related. Body is a textural quality, a perception of viscosity
or fullness on the tongue; one roaster has likened it using your tongue as a weight
scale. Body develops with the degree of roast, falling off sharply with over roasted
coffee, but it can also vary by origin. Distinguish between body and the "thickness"
imparted by some brewing methods, like coffee from a press, where fine particulates
remain suspended, or espresso, which contains emulsified coffee oils. Underextracted
coffee will also have a defectively light body.
Roast and preparation related. This is not always a defect; up to a point, it can
be desirable. Robusta is more bitter than arabica, but mild coffees can become bitter
if over roasted or over extracted during brewing.
Roast related term. Often mischaracterized as "strong," the bittersweet aspect is
created by the caramelization of sugars in the bean. The longer the coffee is roasted,
the greater the caramelization, until at last the sugars are completely burned, giving
the coffee a taste akin to charcoal.
When very mild, this aspect may be desirable for cutting through drinks containing
a lot of milk and/or sugar, though there are those who like it in a straight cup.
When overdeveloped, it is the flat taste of charcoal; this taste can be overwhelming.
Clean-tasting coffees are free of defects or undesirable distractions.
Complexity simply means that the cup has many elements--aromas, textures, and tastes--apparent
at once, or in succession. Since it is rare to find all of the desirable elements
in a single origin, roasters often roast different coffees to achieve a varied profile.
Earthy, or Natural
Within limits, this can be a pleasant note, but more commonly a defect in which the
brewed coffee has an aftertaste akin to freshly turned soil. Commonly relates to
poor processing, one way this defect can occur is when the beans absorb flavour from
the dirt on which they were spread to dry. In more muted degrees, this quality can
add interesting notes to a coffee.
Lacking in taste or aroma; low in acidity. Often occurs when the coffee goes stale.
Processing related. The aroma and taste of hay, or a newly mown lawn. This can result
from prematurely picked cherries.
Mouldy, mildewy ; often the result of some improper storage conditions. Improper
ageing also can cause mustiness, while proper ageing can contribute a desirable flavouring
A harsh, medicinal quality, the term derives from a reference to low quality coffees
from Brazil (i.e., Rio De Janeiro).
Unpleasantly acrid or sour, as if contaminated by vinegar. This taste can occur in
low-growing, unwashed coffees, but commonly occurs in under roasted coffees, or even
properly roasted beans that were then brewed with water that was too cool.